NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Augmentin® 625 mg Tablets
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Augmentin 625 mg Tablets: Each tablet contains co-amoxiclav 500/125.
The amoxicillin is present as amoxicillin trihydrate and the clavulanic acid is present as potassium clavulanate.
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Augmentin 625 mg Tablets:
White to off-white, oval film-coated tablets debossed with 'AC' and a score line one side and plain on the other side.
4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Augmentin is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults and children (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.1):
• Acute bacterial sinusitis (adequately diagnosed)
• Acute otitis media
• Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (adequately diagnosed)
• Community acquired pneumonia
• Skin and soft tissue infections in particular cellulitis, animal bites, severe dental abscess with spreading cellulitis.
• Bone and joint infections, in particular osteomyelitis.
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Doses are expressed throughout in terms of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid content except when doses are stated in terms of an individual component.
The dose of Augmentin that is selected to treat an individual infection should take into account:
• The expected pathogens and their likely susceptibility to antibacterial agents (see section 4.4)
• The severity and the site of the infection
• The age, weight and renal function of the patient as shown below.
The use of alternative presentations of Augmentin (e.g. those that provide higher doses of amoxicillin and/or different ratios of amoxicillin to clavulanic acid) should be considered as necessary (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).
For adults and children 40 kg, this formulation of Augmentin provides a total daily dose of 1500 mg amoxicillin/375 mg clavulanic acid, when administered as recommended below. For children < 40 kg, this formulation of Augmentin provides a maximum daily dose of 2400 mg amoxicillin/600 mg clavulanic acid, when administered as recommended below. If it is considered that a higher daily dose of amoxicillin is required, it is recommended that another preparation of Augmentin is selected in order to avoid administration of unnecessarily high daily doses of clavulanic acid (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).
The duration of therapy should be determined by the response of the patient. Some infections (e.g. osteomyelitis) require longer periods of treatment. Treatment should not be extended beyond 14 days without review (see section 4.4 regarding prolonged therapy).
Adults and children 40 kg
One 500 mg/125 mg dose taken three times a day.
Children < 40 kg
20 mg/5 mg/kg/day to 60 mg/15 mg/kg/day given in three divided doses.
Children may be treated with Augmentin tablets, suspensions or paediatric sachets. Children aged 6 years and below should preferably be treated with Augmentin suspension or paediatric sachets.
No clinical data are available on doses of Augmentin 4:1 formulations higher than 40 mg/10 mg/kg per day in children under 2 years.
No dose adjustment is considered necessary.
Dose adjustments are based on the maximum recommended level of amoxicillin.
No adjustment in dose is required in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 30 ml/min.
Adults and children 40 kg
Children < 40 kg
Dose with caution and monitor hepatic function at regular intervals (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Method of administration
Augmentin is for oral use.
Administer at the start of a meal to minimise potential gastrointestinal intolerance and optimise absorption of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Therapy can be started parenterally according the SPC of the IV-formulation and continued with an oral preparation.
Hypersensitivity to the active substances, to any of the penicillins or to any of the excipients.
History of a severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction (e.g. anaphylaxis) to another beta-lactam agent (e.g. a cephalosporin, carbapenem or monobactam).
History of jaundice/hepatic impairment due to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (see section 4.8).
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, careful enquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other beta-lactam agents (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and in atopic individuals. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy must be discontinued and appropriate alternative therapy instituted.
In the case that an infection is proven to be due to an amoxicillin-susceptible organisms(s) then consideration should be given to switching from amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to amoxicillin in accordance with official guidance.
This presentation of Augmentin is not suitable for use when there is a high risk that the presumptive pathogens have reduced susceptibility or resistance to beta-lactam agents that is not mediated by beta-lactamases susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid. This presentation should not be used to treat penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses (see section 4.8).
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be avoided if infectious mononucleosis is suspected since the occurrence of a morbilliform rash has been associated with this condition following the use of amoxicillin.
Concomitant use of allopurinol during treatment with amoxicillin can increase the likelihood of allergic skin reactions.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
The occurrence at the treatment initiation of a feverish generalised erythema associated with pustula may be a symptom of acute generalised exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP) (see Section 4.8). This reaction requires Augmentin discontinuation and contra-indicates any subsequent administration of amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic impairment (see section 4.2).
Hepatic events have been reported predominantly in males and elderly patients and may be associated with prolonged treatment. These events have been very rarely reported in children. In all populations, signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. These are usually reversible. Hepatic events may be severe and, in extremely rare circumstances, deaths have been reported. These have almost always occurred in patients with serious underlying disease or taking concomitant medications known to have the potential for hepatic effects (see section 4.8).
Antibiotic-associated colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life threatening (see section 4.8). Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of any antibiotics. Should antibiotic-associated colitis occur, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should immediately be discontinued, a physician be consulted and an appropriate therapy initiated. Anti-peristaltic medicinal products are contra-indicated in this situation.
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prolongation of prothrombin time has been reported rarely in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concomitantly. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation (see section 4.5 and 4.8).
In patients with renal impairment, the dose should be adjusted according to the degree of impairment (see section 4.2).
In patients with reduced urine output, crystalluria has been observed very rarely, predominantly with parenteral therapy. During the administration of high doses of amoxicillin, it is advisable to maintain adequate fluid intake and urinary output in order to reduce the possibility of amoxicillin crystalluria. In patients with bladder catheters, a regular check of patency should be maintained (see section 4.9).
During treatment with amoxicillin, enzymatic glucose oxidase methods should be used whenever testing for the presence of glucose in urine because false positive results may occur with non-enzymatic methods.
The presence of Clavulanic acid in Augmentin may cause a non-specific binding of IgG and albumin by red cell membranes leading to a false positive Coombs test.
There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Oral anticoagulants and penicillin antibiotics have been widely used in practice without reports of interaction. However, in the literature there are cases of increased international normalised ratio in patients maintained on acenocoumarol or warfarin and prescribed a course of amoxicillin. If co-administration is necessary, the prothrombin time or international normalised ratio should be carefully monitored with the addition or withdrawal of amoxicillin. Moreover, adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).
Penicillins may reduce the excretion of methotrexate causing a potential increase in toxicity.
Concomitant use of probenecid is not recommended. Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concomitant use of probenecid may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin but not of clavulanic acid.